Outils pour utilisateurs

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linux:mysql

MYSQL : Système de gestion de base de données

MySQL est un serveur de bases de données relationnelles SQL développé dans un souci de performances élevées en lecture, ce qui signifie qu'il est davantage orienté vers le service de données déjà en place que vers celui de mises à jour fréquentes et fortement sécurisées. Il est multi-thread et multi-utilisateur.
 MYSQL

Quelques rappels :

  • Rappel pour vérifier les ports en écoute (Linux)

netstat -antup

  • Voir si le processus est actif (démon MYSQLD):

ps -ef | grep mysqld

  • PhpMyAdmin fichiers de config (copié le config.sample.inc.php)

config.inc.php

  • Redémarrez le service

/etc/init.d/mysql-server restart

Les droits et utilisateurs MYSQL

MYSQL user

Connexion

mysql -u root -h 'IP' -p

Plus précis (serveur/port/mdp):

mysql -u root -h localhost -P 3306 -p

Attribuer un mot de passe au root (+sécurisé!)

mysql -u root
 
SET password FOR root@localhost = Password('mot_de_passe') ;

Supprimer les références à l'utilisateur anonyme

USE mysql;
 
DELETE FROM USER WHERE USER='';
 
FLUSH privileges ;

Donner un accès distant au root

GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'user'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'mot_de_passe' ;

Lister les utilisateurs

SELECT Host, USER, Password FROM USER;
 
SELECT * FROM USER \G

Afficher l'utilisateur courant

SELECT USER();

Attribuer des droits à un utilisateur

exemple sur une table uniquement:

GRANT SELECT ON CAVE.VIN TO user2@localhost ;
 
FLUSH privileges;

exemple de certains droits seulement sur ttes les bdd:

GRANT SELECT,INSERT,DELETE ON CAVE.* tu user3@localhost;
 
FLUSH privileges;

Supprimer des droits à un utilisateur

REVOKE DELETE ON CAVE.* FROM user1@localhost;
 
FLUSH privileges;

Afficher les accès d'un utilisateur à une base

La commande mysqlaccess s'éxecute avec le super-user

mysqlaccess localhost user1 CAVE -U root -P

Visualiser les privilèges

SHOW grants;

Pour un compte précis::

SHOW grants FOR user1@localhost ;

Les bases de données et tables MYSQL

MYSQL DB

Créer une bdd

CREATE DATABASE 'le_nom';

Voir les bdd existantes

SHOW DATABASES;

Effacer une bdd

DROP DATABASE le_nom;

Créer des tables dans une bdd

exemple:

USE CAVE;
 
CREATE TABLE VIN(
 
NOM CHAR(10) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
 
REGION CHAR(10)
 
);

autre exemple:

USE CAVE;
 
CREATE TABLE BOUTEILLE (NOM CHAR(10) NOT NULL, ANNEE INTEGER );

vérification:

SHOW TABLES;

Afficher la structure d'une table

exemple:

DESCRIBE VIN;

SHOW FIELDS FROM VIN FROM CAVE;

Ajouter des enregistrements dans une table

exemple:

INSERT INTO VIN VALUES ('Riesling','Alsace');
 
INSERT INTO VIN BOUTEILLE (NOM,ANNEE) VALUES ('Riesling',1989);

Modifier des enregistrements

exemple de modif:

UPDATE VIN SET NOM='NUIT St-G' WHERE NOM='Nuit' ;

exemple de suppression:

DELETE FROM VIN WHERE NOM='Californie' ;

Afficher la base de données courante

SELECT DATABASE();

Rechercher des enregistrements dans une table

exemple simple:

SELECT * FROM VIN ;

exemple plus affiné:

SELECT NOM FROM VIN WHERE REGION='Alsace'

exemple avec options de tri:

SELECT NOM, ANNEE FROM BOUTEILLE WHERE ANNEE > 2000 ORDER BY ANNEE;

exemple de jointure SQL:

SELECT VIN.NOM, REGION, ANNEE FROM VIN,BOUTEILLE WHERE VIN.NOM=BOUTEILLE.NOM;

Sauvegarder une base de données

mysqldump -u root -p NOM_2LA_BASE -rSAVE.sql

Restaurer une BDD depuis .sql

mysql -u root -h 'localhost' -p < SAVE.sql

Trucs et astuces MYSQL

Exécuter un script SQL

De manière classique:

mysql < un_script.sql

De manière interactive (une fois connecté):

SOURCE un_script.sql

Réaliser une sortie HTML dans un terminal BASH

mysql --html < un_script.sql > page.html

Exporter une requête dans un fichier texte

exemple:

SELECT USER,host FROM USER INTO OUTFILE '/tmp/export.txt' FIELDS TERMINATED BY ":" ;

Et pour restaurer à partir d'un fichier texte:

LOAD DATA INFILE "/tmp/export.txt" INTO TABLE VIN FIELDS TERMINATED BY ":" ;

Afficher la page d'état

STATUS

Exécuter une commande via le shell

system DATE

Activer/désactiver la trace des commandes

Activer:

tee trace.txt

Voir:

system cat trace.txt

Désactiver:

notee

Activer le pager

pager less
Q pour quitter
nopager

Affichage en ligne d'un ordre SQL

SELECT * FROM VIN WHERE NOM='Gewur' \G

Exécuter un ordre SQL en argument de la commande de connexion

exemple:

mysql CAVE -e 'select * from VIN where NOM="Gewur"'

Les journaux

Vider les journaux

flush logs
Détruire tous les journaux
reset master

Script de backup mysql automatique

MYSQL DUMP

  • Ce script vous permet de réaliser des backups journalier, hebdomadaire, mensuel de toutes vos bases de données. (compressé - choix des bases à dumper - logs - envoi distant - mail info)

#!/bin/bash
#
# MySQL Backup Script
# VER. 2.5.1 - http://sourceforge.net/projects/automysqlbackup/
# Copyright (c) 2002-2003 wipe_out@lycos.co.uk
#
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# 
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
#
#=====================================================================
#=====================================================================
# Set the following variables to your system needs
# (Detailed instructions below variables)
#=====================================================================
#set -x
CONFIGFILE="/etc/automysqlbackup/automysqlbackup.conf"

if [ -r ${CONFIGFILE} ]; then
	# Read the configfile if it's existing and readable
	source ${CONFIGFILE}
else
	# do inline-config otherwise
	# To create a configfile just copy the code between "### START CFG ###" and "### END CFG ###"
	# to /etc/automysqlbackup/automysqlbackup.conf. After that you're able to upgrade this script
	# (copy a new version to its location) without the need for editing it.
	### START CFG ###
	# Username to access the MySQL server e.g. dbuser
	USERNAME=debian
	
	# Password to access the MySQL server e.g. password
	PASSWORD=
	
	# Host name (or IP address) of MySQL server e.g localhost
	DBHOST=localhost
	
	# List of DBNAMES for Daily/Weekly Backup e.g. "DB1 DB2 DB3"
	DBNAMES="all"
	
	# Backup directory location e.g /backups
	BACKUPDIR="/srv/backup/db"
	
	# Mail setup
	# What would you like to be mailed to you?
	# - log   : send only log file
	# - files : send log file and sql files as attachments (see docs)
	# - stdout : will simply output the log to the screen if run manually.
	# - quiet : Only send logs if an error occurs to the MAILADDR.
	MAILCONTENT="log"
	
	# Set the maximum allowed email size in k. (4000 = approx 5MB email [see docs])
	MAXATTSIZE="4000"
	
	# Email Address to send mail to? (user@domain.com)
	MAILADDR="maintenance@example.com"
	
	
	# ============================================================
	# === ADVANCED OPTIONS ( Read the doc's below for details )===
	#=============================================================
	
	# List of DBBNAMES for Monthly Backups.
	MDBNAMES="${DBNAMES}"
	
	# List of DBNAMES to EXLUCDE if DBNAMES are set to all (must be in " quotes)
	DBEXCLUDE=""
	
	# Include CREATE DATABASE in backup?
	CREATE_DATABASE=no
	
	# Separate backup directory and file for each DB? (yes or no)
	SEPDIR=yes
	
	# Which day do you want weekly backups? (1 to 7 where 1 is Monday)
	DOWEEKLY=6
	
	# Choose Compression type. (gzip or bzip2)
	COMP=gzip
	
	# Compress communications between backup server and MySQL server?
	COMMCOMP=no
	
	# Additionally keep a copy of the most recent backup in a seperate directory.
	LATEST=no
	
	#  The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. e.g. 16MB (maximum is 1GB)
	MAX_ALLOWED_PACKET=
	
	#  For connections to localhost. Sometimes the Unix socket file must be specified.
	SOCKET=
	
	# Command to run before backups (uncomment to use)
	#PREBACKUP="/etc/mysql-backup-pre"
	
	# Command run after backups (uncomment to use)
	#POSTBACKUP="/etc/mysql-backup-post"
	### END CFG ###
fi

#=====================================================================
# Options documantation
#=====================================================================
# Set USERNAME and PASSWORD of a user that has the appropriate permissions
# to backup ALL databases. (See mysql documentation for details)
# NEW in 2.5.1:
# - If USERNAME is set to "debian" and PASSWORD is unset or "" obtain
#   them from the file /etc/mysql/debian.cnf
# - First command line option "-c" for configfile
# - Interpretable Exit-States:
#    1: given configfile is not readable or does not exist
#    2: unknown option
#
# Set the DBHOST option to the server you wish to backup, leave the
# default to backup "this server".(to backup multiple servers make
# copies of this file and set the options for that server)
#
# Put in the list of DBNAMES(Databases)to be backed up. If you would like
# to backup ALL DBs on the server set DBNAMES="all".(if set to "all" then
# any new DBs will automatically be backed up without needing to modify
# this backup script when a new DB is created).
#
# If the DB you want to backup has a space in the name replace the space
# with a % e.g. "data base" will become "data%base"
# NOTE: Spaces in DB names may not work correctly when SEPDIR=no.
#
# You can change the backup storage location from /backups to anything
# you like by using the BACKUPDIR setting..
#
# The MAILCONTENT and MAILADDR options and pretty self explanitory, use
# these to have the backup log mailed to you at any email address or multiple
# email addresses in a space seperated list.
# (If you set mail content to "log" you will require access to the "mail" program
# on your server. If you set this to "files" you will have to have mutt installed
# on your server. If you set it to "stdout" it will log to the screen if run from 
# the console or to the cron job owner if run through cron. If you set it to "quiet"
# logs will only be mailed if there are errors reported. )
#
# MAXATTSIZE sets the largest allowed email attachments total (all backup files) you
# want the script to send. This is the size before it is encoded to be sent as an email
# so if your mail server will allow a maximum mail size of 5MB I would suggest setting
# MAXATTSIZE to be 25% smaller than that so a setting of 4000 would probably be fine.
#
# Finally copy automysqlbackup.sh to anywhere on your server and make sure
# to set executable permission. You can also copy the script to
# /etc/cron.daily to have it execute automatically every night or simply
# place a symlink in /etc/cron.daily to the file if you wish to keep it 
# somwhere else.
# NOTE:On Debian copy the file with no extention for it to be run
# by cron e.g just name the file "automysqlbackup"
#
# Thats it..
#
#
# === Advanced options doc's ===
#
# The list of MDBNAMES is the DB's to be backed up only monthly. You should
# always include "mysql" in this list to backup your user/password
# information along with any other DBs that you only feel need to
# be backed up monthly. (if using a hosted server then you should
# probably remove "mysql" as your provider will be backing this up)
# NOTE: If DBNAMES="all" then MDBNAMES has no effect as all DBs will be backed
# up anyway.
#
# If you set DBNAMES="all" you can configure the option DBEXCLUDE. Other
# wise this option will not be used.
# This option can be used if you want to backup all dbs, but you want 
# exclude some of them. (eg. a db is to big).
#
# Set CREATE_DATABASE to "yes" (the default) if you want your SQL-Dump to create
# a database with the same name as the original database when restoring.
# Saying "no" here will allow your to specify the database name you want to
# restore your dump into, making a copy of the database by using the dump
# created with automysqlbackup.
# NOTE: Not used if SEPDIR=no
#
# The SEPDIR option allows you to choose to have all DBs backed up to
# a single file (fast restore of entire server in case of crash) or to
# seperate directories for each DB (each DB can be restored seperately
# in case of single DB corruption or loss).
#
# To set the day of the week that you would like the weekly backup to happen
# set the DOWEEKLY setting, this can be a value from 1 to 7 where 1 is Monday,
# The default is 6 which means that weekly backups are done on a Saturday.
#
# COMP is used to choose the copmression used, options are gzip or bzip2.
# bzip2 will produce slightly smaller files but is more processor intensive so
# may take longer to complete.
#
# COMMCOMP is used to enable or diable mysql client to server compression, so
# it is useful to save bandwidth when backing up a remote MySQL server over
# the network. 
#
# LATEST is to store an additional copy of the latest backup to a standard
# location so it can be downloaded bt thrid party scripts.
#
# If the DB's being backed up make use of large BLOB fields then you may need
# to increase the MAX_ALLOWED_PACKET setting, for example 16MB..
#
# When connecting to localhost as the DB server (DBHOST=localhost) sometimes
# the system can have issues locating the socket file.. This can now be set
# using the SOCKET parameter.. An example may be SOCKET=/private/tmp/mysql.sock
#
# Use PREBACKUP and POSTBACKUP to specify Per and Post backup commands
# or scripts to perform tasks either before or after the backup process.
#
#
#=====================================================================
# Backup Rotation..
#=====================================================================
#
# Daily Backups are rotated weekly..
# Weekly Backups are run by default on Saturday Morning when
# cron.daily scripts are run...Can be changed with DOWEEKLY setting..
# Weekly Backups are rotated on a 5 week cycle..
# Monthly Backups are run on the 1st of the month..
# Monthly Backups are rotated on a 5 month cycle...
# It may be a good idea to copy Monthly backups offline or to another
# server..
#
#=====================================================================
# Please Note!!
#=====================================================================
#
# I take no resposibility for any data loss or corruption when using
# this script..
# This script will not help in the event of a hard drive crash. If a 
# copy of the backup has not be stored offline or on another PC..
# You should copy your backups offline regularly for best protection.
#
# Happy backing up...
#
#=====================================================================
# Restoring
#=====================================================================
# Firstly you will need to uncompress the backup file.
# eg.
# gunzip file.gz (or bunzip2 file.bz2)
#
# Next you will need to use the mysql client to restore the DB from the
# sql file.
# eg.
# mysql --user=username --pass=password --host=dbserver database < /path/file.sql
# or
# mysql --user=username --pass=password --host=dbserver -e "source /path/file.sql" database
#
# NOTE: Make sure you use "<" and not ">" in the above command because
# you are piping the file.sql to mysql and not the other way around.
#
# Lets hope you never have to use this.. :)
#
#=====================================================================
# Change Log
#=====================================================================
#
# VER 2.5.1-01 - (2010-07-06)
#     - Fixed pathname bug item #3025849 (by Johannes Kolter)
# VER 2.5.1 - (2010-07-04)
#     - Added support for default and optional config file (by Johannes Kolter)
#     - Rotating after backup was successful whith find(1) (by Johannes Kolter)
#     - Implementation of Variables containing full path to binaries to
#       avoid possibly confusion with aliases or builtins. (by Johannes Kolter)
#     - Fixed bug where weekly backups were not being rotated.
#       Added rotation of 5 monthly backups
#       Now all old backups are deleted, not only the most recent one
#       (inspired by oleg@bintime.com)
#     - Use Debian special-file to access database (by Johannes Kolter)
#     - Fixed bug ID: 1438565
#       Moved IO redirection to a place before decicions are made and actions are taken.
#       (inspired by Derk Bernhardt)
#     - Fixed bug ID: #3000316 (reported by Sascha Feldhorst)
#     - Fixed bug ID: #1529458 (reported by Natalie ( njwood ))
#     - Fixed bug ID: #1548919 (reported by Piotr Kuczynski)
# VER 2.5 - (2006-01-15)
#		Added support for setting MAXIMUM_PACKET_SIZE and SOCKET parameters (suggested by Yvo van Doorn)
# VER 2.4 - (2006-01-23)
#    Fixed bug where weekly backups were not being rotated. (Fix by wolf02)
#    Added hour an min to backup filename for the case where backups are taken multiple
#    times in a day. NOTE This is not complete support for mutiple executions of the script
#    in a single day.
#    Added MAILCONTENT="quiet" option, see docs for details. (requested by snowsam)
#    Updated path statment for compatibility with OSX.
#    Added "LATEST" to additionally store the last backup to a standard location. (request by Grant29)
# VER 2.3 - (2005-11-07)
#    Better error handling and notification of errors (a long time coming)
#    Compression on Backup server to MySQL server communications. 
# VER 2.2 - (2004-12-05)
#    Changed from using depricated "-N" to "--skip-column-names".
#    Added ability to have compressed backup's emailed out. (code from Thomas Heiserowski)
#    Added maximum attachment size setting.
# VER 2.1 - (2004-11-04)
#    Fixed a bug in daily rotation when not using gzip compression. (Fix by Rob Rosenfeld)
# VER 2.0 - (2004-07-28)
#    Switched to using IO redirection instead of pipeing the output to the logfile.
#    Added choice of compression of backups being gzip of bzip2.
#    Switched to using functions to facilitate more functionality.
#    Added option of either gzip or bzip2 compression. 
# VER 1.10 - (2004-07-17)
#    Another fix for spaces in the paths (fix by Thomas von Eyben)
#    Fixed bug when using PREBACKUP and POSTBACKUP commands containing many arguments.
# VER 1.9 - (2004-05-25)
#    Small bug fix to handle spaces in LOGFILE path which contains spaces (reported by Thomas von Eyben)
#    Updated docs to mention that Log email can be sent to multiple email addresses.
# VER 1.8 - (2004-05-01)
#    Added option to make backups restorable to alternate database names
#    meaning that a copy of the database can be created (Based on patch by Rene Hoffmann)
#    Seperated options into standard and advanced.
#    Removed " from single file dump DBMANES because it caused an error but
#    this means that if DB's have spaces in the name they will not dump when SEPDIR=no.
#    Added -p option to mkdir commands to create multiple subdirs without error.
#    Added disk usage and location to the bottom of the backup report.
# VER 1.7 - (2004-04-22)
#    Fixed an issue where weelky backups would only work correctly if server
#    locale was set to English (issue reported by Tom Ingberg)
#    used "eval" for "rm" commands to try and resolve rotation issues.
#    Changed name of status log so multiple scripts can be run at the same time.
# VER 1.6 - (2004-03-14)
#   Added PREBACKUP and POSTBACKUP command functions. (patch by markpustjens)
#   Added support for backing up DB's with Spaces in the name.
#   (patch by markpustjens)
# VER 1.5 - (2004-02-24)
#   Added the ability to exclude DB's when the "all" option is used.
#   (Patch by kampftitan)
# VER 1.4 - (2004-02-02)
#   Project moved to Sourceforge.net
# VER 1.3 - (2003-09-25)
#   Added support for backing up "all" databases on the server without
#    having to list each one seperately in the configuration.
#   Added DB restore instructions.
# VER 1.2 - (2003-03-16)
#   Added server name to the backup log so logs from multiple servers
#   can be easily identified.
# VER 1.1 - (2003-03-13)
#   Small Bug fix in monthly report. (Thanks Stoyanski)
#   Added option to email log to any email address. (Inspired by Stoyanski)
#   Changed Standard file name to .sh extention.
#   Option are set using yes and no rather than 1 or 0.
# VER 1.0 - (2003-01-30)
#   Added the ability to have all databases backup to a single dump
#   file or seperate directory and file for each database.
#   Output is better for log keeping.
# VER 0.6 - (2003-01-22)
#   Bug fix for daily directory (Added in VER 0.5) rotation.
# VER 0.5 - (2003-01-20)
#   Added "daily" directory for daily backups for neatness (suggestion by Jason)
#   Added DBHOST option to allow backing up a remote server (Suggestion by Jason)
#   Added "--quote-names" option to mysqldump command.
#   Bug fix for handling the last and first of the year week rotation.
# VER 0.4 - (2002-11-06)
#   Added the abaility for the script to create its own directory structure.
# VER 0.3 - (2002-10-01)
#   Changed Naming of Weekly backups so they will show in order.
# VER 0.2 - (2002-09-27)
#   Corrected weekly rotation logic to handle weeks 0 - 10 
# VER 0.1 - (2002-09-21)
#   Initial Release
#
#=====================================================================
#=====================================================================
#=====================================================================
#
# Should not need to be modified from here down!!
#
#=====================================================================
#=====================================================================
#=====================================================================
#
# Full pathname to binaries to avoid problems with aliases and builtins etc.
#
WHICH="`which which`"
AWK="`${WHICH} gawk`"
LOGGER="`${WHICH} logger`"
ECHO="`${WHICH} echo`"
CAT="`${WHICH} cat`"
BASENAME="`${WHICH} basename`"
DATEC="`${WHICH} date`"
DU="`${WHICH} du`"
EXPR="`${WHICH} expr`"
FIND="`${WHICH} find`"
RM="`${WHICH} rm`"
MYSQL="`${WHICH} mysql`"
MYSQLDUMP="`${WHICH} mysqldump`"
GZIP="`${WHICH} gzip`"
BZIP2="`${WHICH} bzip2`"
CP="`${WHICH} cp`"
HOSTNAMEC="`${WHICH} hostname`"
SED="`${WHICH} sed`"
GREP="`${WHICH} grep`"

function get_debian_pw() {
	if [ -r /etc/mysql/debian.cnf ]; then
		eval $(${AWK} '
			! user && /^[[:space:]]*user[[:space:]]*=[[:space:]]*/ {
				print "USERNAME=" gensub(/.+[[:space:]]+([^[:space:]]+)[[:space:]]*$/, "\\1", "1"); user++
			}
			! pass && /^[[:space:]]*password[[:space:]]*=[[:space:]]*/ {
				print "PASSWORD=" gensub(/.+[[:space:]]+([^[:space:]]+)[[:space:]]*$/, "\\1", "1"); pass++
			}' /etc/mysql/debian.cnf
		)
	else
		${LOGGER} "${PROGNAME}: File \"/etc/mysql/debian.cnf\" not found."
		exit 1
	fi
}

[ "x${USERNAME}" = "xdebian" -a "x${PASSWORD}" = "x" ] && get_debian_pw 

while [ $# -gt 0 ]; do
	case $1 in
		-c)
			if [ -r "$2" ]; then
				source "$2"
				shift 2
			else
				${ECHO} "Ureadable config file \"$2\""
				exit 1
			fi
			;;
		*)
			${ECHO} "Unknown Option \"$1\""
			exit 2
			;;
	esac
done

export LC_ALL=C
PROGNAME=`${BASENAME} $0`
PATH=/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/local/mysql/bin 
DATE=`${DATEC} +%Y-%m-%d_%Hh%Mm`				# Datestamp e.g 2002-09-21
DOW=`${DATEC} +%A`							# Day of the week e.g. Monday
DNOW=`${DATEC} +%u`						# Day number of the week 1 to 7 where 1 represents Monday
DOM=`${DATEC} +%d`							# Date of the Month e.g. 27
M=`${DATEC} +%B`							# Month e.g January
W=`${DATEC} +%V`							# Week Number e.g 37
VER=2.5.1									# Version Number
LOGFILE=${BACKUPDIR}/${DBHOST}-`${DATEC} +%N`.log		# Logfile Name
LOGERR=${BACKUPDIR}/ERRORS_${DBHOST}-`${DATEC} +%N`.log		# Logfile Name
BACKUPFILES=""
OPT="--quote-names --opt"			# OPT string for use with mysqldump ( see man mysqldump )

# IO redirection for logging.
touch ${LOGFILE}
exec 6>&1           # Link file descriptor #6 with stdout.
                    # Saves stdout.
exec > ${LOGFILE}     # stdout replaced with file ${LOGFILE}.
touch ${LOGERR}
exec 7>&2           # Link file descriptor #7 with stderr.
                    # Saves stderr.
exec 2> ${LOGERR}     # stderr replaced with file ${LOGERR}.

# Add --compress mysqldump option to ${OPT}
if [ "${COMMCOMP}" = "yes" ];
	then
		OPT="${OPT} --compress"
	fi

# Add --max_allowed_packet=... mysqldump option to ${OPT}
if [ "${MAX_ALLOWED_PACKET}" ];
	then
		OPT="${OPT} --max_allowed_packet=${MAX_ALLOWED_PACKET}"
	fi

# Create required directories
if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}" ]		# Check Backup Directory exists.
	then
	mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}"
fi

if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}/daily" ]		# Check Daily Directory exists.
	then
	mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}/daily"
fi

if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly" ]		# Check Weekly Directory exists.
	then
	mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly"
fi

if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly" ]	# Check Monthly Directory exists.
	then
	mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly"
fi

if [ "${LATEST}" = "yes" ]
then
	if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}/latest" ]	# Check Latest Directory exists.
	then
		mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}/latest"
	fi
eval ${RM} -fv "${BACKUPDIR}/latest/*"
fi


# Functions

# Database dump function
dbdump () {
${MYSQLDUMP} --user=${USERNAME} --password=${PASSWORD} --host=${DBHOST} ${OPT} ${1} > ${2}
return $?
}

# Compression function plus latest copy
SUFFIX=""
compression () {
if [ "${COMP}" = "gzip" ]; then
	${GZIP} -f "${1}"
	${ECHO}
	${ECHO} Backup Information for "${1}"
	${GZIP} -l "${1}.gz"
	SUFFIX=".gz"
elif [ "${COMP}" = "bzip2" ]; then
	${ECHO} Compression information for "${1}.bz2"
	${BZIP2} -f -v ${1} 2>&1
	SUFFIX=".bz2"
else
	${ECHO} "No compression option set, check advanced settings"
fi
if [ "${LATEST}" = "yes" ]; then
	${CP} ${1}${SUFFIX} "${BACKUPDIR}/latest/"
fi	
return 0
}


# Run command before we begin
if [ "${PREBACKUP}" ]
	then
	${ECHO} ======================================================================
	${ECHO} "Prebackup command output."
	${ECHO}
	eval ${PREBACKUP}
	${ECHO}
	${ECHO} ======================================================================
	${ECHO}
fi


if [ "${SEPDIR}" = "yes" ]; then # Check if CREATE DATABSE should be included in Dump
	if [ "${CREATE_DATABASE}" = "no" ]; then
		OPT="${OPT} --no-create-db"
	else
		OPT="${OPT} --databases"
	fi
else
	OPT="${OPT} --databases"
fi

# Hostname for LOG information
if [ "${DBHOST}" = "localhost" ]; then
	HOST=`${HOSTNAMEC}`
	if [ "${SOCKET}" ]; then
		OPT="${OPT} --socket=${SOCKET}"
	fi
else
	HOST=${DBHOST}
fi

# If backing up all DBs on the server
if [ "${DBNAMES}" = "all" ]; then
        DBNAMES="`${MYSQL} --user=${USERNAME} --password=${PASSWORD} --host=${DBHOST} --batch --skip-column-names -e "show databases"| ${SED} 's/ /%/g'`"

	# If DBs are excluded
	for exclude in ${DBEXCLUDE}
	do
		DBNAMES=`${ECHO} ${DBNAMES} | ${SED} "s/\b${exclude}\b//g"`
	done

        MDBNAMES=${DBNAMES}
fi
	
${ECHO} ======================================================================
${ECHO} AutoMySQLBackup VER ${VER}
${ECHO} http://sourceforge.net/projects/automysqlbackup/
${ECHO} 
${ECHO} Backup of Database Server - ${HOST}
${ECHO} ======================================================================

# Test is seperate DB backups are required
if [ "${SEPDIR}" = "yes" ]; then
${ECHO} Backup Start Time `${DATEC}`
${ECHO} ======================================================================
	# Monthly Full Backup of all Databases
	if [ ${DOM} = "01" ]; then
		for MDB in ${MDBNAMES}
		do
 
			 # Prepare ${DB} for using
		        MDB="`${ECHO} ${MDB} | ${SED} 's/%/ /g'`"

			if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${MDB}" ]		# Check Monthly DB Directory exists.
			then
				mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${MDB}"
			fi
			${ECHO} Monthly Backup of ${MDB}...
				dbdump "${MDB}" "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${MDB}/${MDB}_${DATE}.${M}.${MDB}.sql"
				[ $? -eq 0 ] && {
					${ECHO} "Rotating 5 month backups for ${MDB}"
					${FIND} "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${MDB}" -mtime +150 -type f -exec ${RM} -v {} \; 
				}
				compression "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${MDB}/${MDB}_${DATE}.${M}.${MDB}.sql"
				BACKUPFILES="${BACKUPFILES} ${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${MDB}/${MDB}_${DATE}.${M}.${MDB}.sql${SUFFIX}"
			${ECHO} ----------------------------------------------------------------------
		done
	fi

	for DB in ${DBNAMES}
	do
	# Prepare ${DB} for using
	DB="`${ECHO} ${DB} | ${SED} 's/%/ /g'`"
	
	# Create Seperate directory for each DB
	if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DB}" ]		# Check Daily DB Directory exists.
		then
		mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DB}"
	fi
	
	if [ ! -e "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/${DB}" ]		# Check Weekly DB Directory exists.
		then
		mkdir -p "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/${DB}"
	fi
	
	# Weekly Backup
	if [ ${DNOW} = ${DOWEEKLY} ]; then
		${ECHO} Weekly Backup of Database \( ${DB} \)
		${ECHO}
			dbdump "${DB}" "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/${DB}/${DB}_week.${W}.${DATE}.sql"
			[ $? -eq 0 ] && {
				${ECHO} Rotating 5 weeks Backups...
				${FIND} "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/${DB}" -mtime +35 -type f -exec ${RM} -v {} \; 
			}
			compression "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/${DB}/${DB}_week.${W}.${DATE}.sql"
			BACKUPFILES="${BACKUPFILES} ${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/${DB}/${DB}_week.${W}.${DATE}.sql${SUFFIX}"
		${ECHO} ----------------------------------------------------------------------
	
	# Daily Backup
	else
		${ECHO} Daily Backup of Database \( ${DB} \)
		${ECHO}
			dbdump "${DB}" "${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DB}/${DB}_${DATE}.${DOW}.sql"
			[ $? -eq 0 ] && {
				${ECHO} Rotating last weeks Backup...
				${FIND} "${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DB}" -mtime +6 -type f -exec ${RM} -v {} \; 
			}
			compression "${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DB}/${DB}_${DATE}.${DOW}.sql"
			BACKUPFILES="${BACKUPFILES} ${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DB}/${DB}_${DATE}.${DOW}.sql${SUFFIX}"
		${ECHO} ----------------------------------------------------------------------
	fi
	done
${ECHO} Backup End `${DATEC}`
${ECHO} ======================================================================


else # One backup file for all DBs
${ECHO} Backup Start `${DATEC}`
${ECHO} ======================================================================
	# Monthly Full Backup of all Databases
	if [ ${DOM} = "01" ]; then
		${ECHO} Monthly full Backup of \( ${MDBNAMES} \)...
			dbdump "${MDBNAMES}" "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${DATE}.${M}.all-databases.sql"
			[ $? -eq 0 ] && {
				${ECHO} "Rotating 5 month backups."
				${FIND} "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly" -mtime +150 -type f -exec ${RM} -v {} \; 
			}
			compression "${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${DATE}.${M}.all-databases.sql"
			BACKUPFILES="${BACKUPFILES} ${BACKUPDIR}/monthly/${DATE}.${M}.all-databases.sql${SUFFIX}"
		${ECHO} ----------------------------------------------------------------------
	fi

	# Weekly Backup
	if [ ${DNOW} = ${DOWEEKLY} ]; then
		${ECHO} Weekly Backup of Databases \( ${DBNAMES} \)
		${ECHO}
		${ECHO}
			dbdump "${DBNAMES}" "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/week.${W}.${DATE}.sql"
			[ $? -eq 0 ] && {
				${ECHO} Rotating 5 weeks Backups...
				${FIND} "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/" -mtime +35 -type f -exec ${RM} -v {} \; 
			}
			compression "${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/week.${W}.${DATE}.sql"
			BACKUPFILES="${BACKUPFILES} ${BACKUPDIR}/weekly/week.${W}.${DATE}.sql${SUFFIX}"
		${ECHO} ----------------------------------------------------------------------
		
	# Daily Backup
	else
		${ECHO} Daily Backup of Databases \( ${DBNAMES} \)
		${ECHO}
		${ECHO}
			dbdump "${DBNAMES}" "${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DATE}.${DOW}.sql"
			[ $? -eq 0 ] && {
				${ECHO} Rotating last weeks Backup...
				${FIND} "${BACKUPDIR}/daily" -mtime +6 -type f -exec ${RM} -v {} \; 
			}
			compression "${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DATE}.${DOW}.sql"
			BACKUPFILES="${BACKUPFILES} ${BACKUPDIR}/daily/${DATE}.${DOW}.sql${SUFFIX}"
		${ECHO} ----------------------------------------------------------------------
	fi
${ECHO} Backup End Time `${DATEC}`
${ECHO} ======================================================================
fi
${ECHO} Total disk space used for backup storage..
${ECHO} Size - Location
${ECHO} `${DU} -hs "${BACKUPDIR}"`
${ECHO}
${ECHO} ======================================================================
${ECHO} If you find AutoMySQLBackup valuable please make a donation at
${ECHO} http://sourceforge.net/project/project_donations.php?group_id=101066
${ECHO} ======================================================================

# Run command when we're done
if [ "${POSTBACKUP}" ]
	then
	${ECHO} ======================================================================
	${ECHO} "Postbackup command output."
	${ECHO}
	eval ${POSTBACKUP}
	${ECHO}
	${ECHO} ======================================================================
fi

#Clean up IO redirection
exec 1>&6 6>&-      # Restore stdout and close file descriptor #6.
exec 2>&7 7>&-      # Restore stdout and close file descriptor #7.

if [ "${MAILCONTENT}" = "files" ]
then
	if [ -s "${LOGERR}" ]
	then
		# Include error log if is larger than zero.
		BACKUPFILES="${BACKUPFILES} ${LOGERR}"
		ERRORNOTE="WARNING: Error Reported - "
	fi
	#Get backup size
	ATTSIZE=`${DU} -c ${BACKUPFILES} | ${GREP} "[[:digit:][:space:]]total$" |${SED} s/\s*total//`
	if [ ${MAXATTSIZE} -ge ${ATTSIZE} ]
	then
		BACKUPFILES=`${ECHO} "${BACKUPFILES}" | ${SED} -e "s# # -a #g"`	#enable multiple attachments
		mutt -s "${ERRORNOTE} MySQL Backup Log and SQL Files for ${HOST} - ${DATE}" ${BACKUPFILES} ${MAILADDR} < ${LOGFILE}		#send via mutt
	else
		${CAT} "${LOGFILE}" | mail -s "WARNING! - MySQL Backup exceeds set maximum attachment size on ${HOST} - ${DATE}" ${MAILADDR}
	fi
elif [ "${MAILCONTENT}" = "log" ]
then
	${CAT} "${LOGFILE}" | mail -s "MySQL Backup Log for ${HOST} - ${DATE}" ${MAILADDR}
	if [ -s "${LOGERR}" ]
		then
			${CAT} "${LOGERR}" | mail -s "ERRORS REPORTED: MySQL Backup error Log for ${HOST} - ${DATE}" ${MAILADDR}
	fi	
elif [ "${MAILCONTENT}" = "quiet" ]
then
	if [ -s "${LOGERR}" ]
		then
			${CAT} "${LOGERR}" | mail -s "ERRORS REPORTED: MySQL Backup error Log for ${HOST} - ${DATE}" ${MAILADDR}
			${CAT} "${LOGFILE}" | mail -s "MySQL Backup Log for ${HOST} - ${DATE}" ${MAILADDR}
	fi
else
	if [ -s "${LOGERR}" ]
		then
			${CAT} "${LOGFILE}"
			${ECHO}
			${ECHO} "###### WARNING ######"
			${ECHO} "Errors reported during AutoMySQLBackup execution.. Backup failed"
			${ECHO} "Error log below.."
			${CAT} "${LOGERR}"
	else
		${CAT} "${LOGFILE}"
	fi	
fi

if [ -s "${LOGERR}" ]
	then
		STATUS=1
	else
		STATUS=0
fi

# Clean up Logfile
eval ${RM} -f "${LOGFILE}"
eval ${RM} -f "${LOGERR}"

exit ${STATUS}

Exemple TP REQUETE ET SOUS-REQUETE

  • COMPTABILISE CHAQUE OCCURENCES D' UN CHAMP PRECISE AVEC OU SANS DOUBLON (DISTINCT)

select COUNT(CATEGORIE) as 'DIFFERENTES CATEGORIES' FROM ARTICLES;
select COUNT(DISTINCT CATEGORIE) as 'DIFFERENTES CATEGORIES' FROM ARTICLES;

  • LA SOMME AVEC ALIAS DE LA QUANTITE DES ARTICLES NUMERO 2

select SUM(QUANTITE) as "quantite totale d'articles numero 2" from ACHATS where N_ARTICLE=2;

  • Afficher LES DONNEES D'UNE TABLE EN LES CHANGEANT

select DESIGNATION, PRIX*1.10 as "prix augmente de 10%" from ARTICLES;

  • Afficher le résultat de plusieurs commandes dans une même sortie

SELECT N_ARTICLE from ARTICLES where PRIX >20 UNION  SELECT N_ARTICLE FROM ACHATS where N_CLIENT=1;
peu different de
SELECT N_ARTICLE from ARTICLES where PRIX >20 ;SELECT N_ARTICLE FROM ACHATS where N_CLIENT=1;

  • Afficher la somme des prix regroupées par catégorie:

SELECT CATEGORIE , SUM(PRIX) AS 'Prix Cumulés' from ARTICLES GROUP BY CATEGORIE;

  • Afficher la moyenne des prix regroupés par catégorie:

SELECT CATEGORIE,AVG(PRIX) as 'Prix Moyen' from ARTICLES GROUP BY CATEGORIE;

  • Réaliser une sortie groupée avec des champs par alias regroupant des opérations de comptage,de somme

SELECT CLIENTS.NOM as 'Les Noms',
CLIENTS.PRENOM as 'Les Prénoms',
COUNT(*) as 'Nombre',
SUM(ARTICLES.PRIX*ACHATS.QUANTITE) as 'Total' 
from CLIENTS,ACHATS,ARTICLES 
where ACHATS.N_CLIENT=CLIENTS.N_CLIENT 
AND ARTICLES.N_ARTICLE=ACHATS.N_ARTICLE 
GROUP BY CLIENTS.NOM,CLIENTS.PRENOM;

  • Réaliser une sortie groupé du nombre de commandes >1 passé par client en fonction de son N°Client:

SELECT N_CLIENT, COUNT(*) as 'Nbre de commandes' FROM ACHATS GROUP BY N_CLIENT HAVING COUNT(*)>1;

  • Réaliser une sortie groupé sans restrictions:

SELECT N_CLIENT, COUNT(*) as 'Nbre de commandes' FROM ACHATS GROUP BY N_CLIENT ;

  • Réaliser une requête complexe avec plein d'options de narvalo:

SELECT CLIENTS.NOM, AVG(ARTICLES.PRIX) from ACHATS,ARTICLES,CLIENTS 
where CLIENTS.N_CLIENT=ACHATS.N_CLIENT 
AND ACHATS.N_ARTICLE=ARTICLES.N_ARTICLE 
GROUP BY CLIENTS.NOM 
HAVING AVG(ARTICLES.PRIX)>10 
ORDER BY CLIENTS.NOM;

  • REQUETE ET SOUS REQUETE IMBRIQUEE

SELECT  N_ARTICLE,DATE,QUANTITE FROM ACHATS 
where N_CLIENT=(
SELECT N_CLIENT FROM CLIENTS where NOM='Auguy');

  • REQUETE REALISE UN AFFICHAGE GRACE A UN CALCUL EFFECTUE DANS UNE SOUS REQUETE:

SELECT * FROM ARTICLES where PRIX > (SELECT AVG(PRIX) FROM ARTICLES);

  • REQUETE COMPLEXE INTEGRANT PLUSIEURS SOUS REQUETE:

SELECT NOM,PRENOM from CLIENTS,ACHATS 
where VILLE = (select VILLE from CLIENTS where N_client=1) 
AND CLIENTS.N_CLIENT=ACHATS.N_CLIENT 
AND ACHATS.N_ARTICLE IN (SELECT N_ARTICLE from ARTICLES where PRIX>15);

  • COMPARAISON DE L'ENSEMBLE (ALL) DES RESULTATS D 'UNE SOUS REQUETE AVEC UNE REQUETE

select DISTINCT N_CLIENT from ACHATS 
where QUANTITE > ALL (select QUANTITE from ACHATS where N_CLIENT=2);

  • AUTRE COMMANDE DU MEME STYLE

select * from ARTICLES 
where PRIX > ALL (select PRIX from ARTICLES where CATEGORIE='CD');
OU
select * from ARTICLES 
where PRIX > (select MAX(PRIX) from ARTICLES where CATEGORIE="CD");

  • PERMET DE TESTER SI LA SOUS REQUETE RENVOIE UN RESULTAT

select N_CLIENT,NOM,PRENOM from CLIENTS 
where EXISTS (select * from CLIENTS where VILLE='Aurillac');

  • INSERER UNE LIGNE DANS UNE TABLE

insert into ARTICLES values (6,"pocket PC HP","PDA",175);

  • CREATION D'UNE TABLE MAILING REMPLIE PAR LA SORTIE D'UNE REQUETE SQL

1 CREATION DE LA TABLE
create table mailing(
    -> N_CLIENT int(5) not null auto_increment primary key,
    -> NOM char(13),
    -> PRENOM char(13),
    -> ADRESSE char(30),
    -> CP int(5) not null,
    -> VILLE char(15),
    -> TELEPHONE VARCHAR(10)
    -> );

linux/mysql.txt · Dernière modification: 15/04/2016 à 21:15 (modification externe)

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